Thursday, 19 September 2013

What is Meant by “Communication Disorders”?
The term “communication disorders” encompasses a wide variety of problems in language, speech, and hearing. Speech and language impairments include articulation problems, voice disorders, fluency problems (such as stuttering), aphasia (difficulty in using words, usually as a result of a brain injury), and delays in speech and/or language. Speech and language delays may be due to many factors, including environmental factors or hearing loss.
Hearing impairments include partial hearing and deafness. Deafness may be defined as a loss sufficient to make auditory communication difficult or impossible without amplification. There are four types of hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses are caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle ear and can usually be helped with a hearing aid. Sensorineural losses result from damage to the sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the nerves that supply it and may not respond to the use of a hearing aid. Mixed hearing losses are those in which the problem occurs both in the outer or middle ear and in the inner ear. A central hearing loss results from damage to the nerves or brain.
Many communication disorders result from other conditions such as learning disabilities, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, or cleft lip or cleft palate.
How Many Children Have Communication Disorders?
The overall estimate for speech and language disorders is widely agreed to be 5% of school-aged children. This figure includes voice disorders (3%) and stuttering (1%). The incidence of elementary school children who exhibit delayed phonological (articulation) development is 2% to 3%, although the percentage decreases steadily with age.
Estimates of hearing impairments vary considerably, with one widely accepted figure of 5% representing the portion of school-aged children with hearing levels outside the normal range. Of this number, 10% to 20% require some type of special education. Approximately one-third of students who are deaf attend residential schools. Two-thirds attend day programs in schools for students who are deaf or day classes located in regular schools. The remainder are mainstreamed into regular school programs.
What Are Some Characterstics of Children with Communication Disorders?
A child with speech or language delays may present a variety of characteristics including the inability to follow directions, slow and incomprehensible speech, and pronounced difficulties in syntax and articulation. SYNTAX refers to the order of words in a sentence, and ARTICULATION refers to the manner in which sounds are formed. Articulation disorders are characterized by the substitution of one sound for another or the omission or distortion of certain sounds.
Stuttering or dysfluency is a disorder of speech flow that most often appears between the ages of 3 and 4 years and may progress from a sporadic to a chronic problem. Stuttering may spontaneously disappear by early adolescence, but speech and language therapy should be considered.
Typical voice disorders include hoarseness, breathiness, or sudden breaks in loudness or pitch. Voice disorders are frequently combined with other speech problems to form a complex communication disorder.
A child with a possible hearing problem may appear to strain to hear, ask to have questions repeated before giving the right answer, demonstrate speech inaccuracies (especially dropping the beginnings and endings of words), or exhibit confusion during discussion. Detection and diagnosis of hearing impairment have become very sophisticated. It is possible to detect the presence of hearing loss and evaluate its severity in a newborn child.
Students who speak dialects different from standard English may have communication problems that represent either language differences or, in more severe instances, language disorders.
What are the Educational Implications of Communication Disorders?
Many speech problems are developmental rather than physiological, and as such they respond to remedial instruction. Language experiences are central to a young child’s development. In the past, children with communication disorders were routinely removed from the regular class for individual speech and language therapy. This is still the case in severe instances, but the trend is toward keeping the child in the mainstream as much as possible. In order to accomplish this goal, teamwork among the teacher, speech and language therapist, audiologist, and parents is essential. Speech improvement and correction are blended into the regular classroom curriculum and the child’s natural environment.
Amplification may be extremely valuable for the child with a hearing impairment. Students whose hearing is not completely restored by hearing aids or other means of amplification have unique communication needs. Children who are deaf are not automatically exposed to the enormous amounts of language stimulation experienced by hearing children in their early years. For deaf children, early, consistent, and conscious use of visible communication modes such as sign language, finger spelling, and cued speech and/or amplification and aural/oral training can help reduce this language delay. Some educators advocate a strict oral approach in which the child is required to use as much speech as possible, while others favor the use of sign language and finger spelling combined with speech, an approach known as TOTAL COMMUNICATION. There is increasing consensus that whatever system works best for the individual should be used.
Many children with hearing impairments can be served in the regular classroom with support services. In addition to amplification, instructional aids such as captioned films and high interest/low vocabulary reading materials are helpful. For most children with hearing impairments, language acquisition and development are significantly delayed, sometimes leading to an erroneously low estimate of intelligence.
Students whose physical problems are so severe that they interfere with or completely inhibit communication can frequently take advantage of technological advances that allow the individual to make his or her needs and wants known, perhaps for the first time.


  1. Respon kepada cubaan komunikasi bayi dengan melihat kepadanya, bercakap, meniru sebutan, ketawa & ekpresi muka bayi. 
  2. Ajar bayi untuk meniru aksi – “umm cak”, “wa wa bulan”, “cok cok ping”, “cak cekok” dll
  3. Bercakaplah semasa melakukan aktiviti – mandi, makan, berpakaian, “Kita sabun badan”, “hmmm…sedapnya nestum.buka mulut…. ammm”
  4. Bercakap tentang perkara yang akan dilakukan, ke mana kita pergi, siapa dan apa kita jumpa, dll 
  5. Mengira- menggunakan jari, langkah kaki
  6. Ajar bunyi-bunyi persekitaran -binatang, kenderaan dsb
  7. Guna isyarat untuk meyampaikan makna - lambai tangan, salam
  8. Huraikan perkataan tunggal yang disebut. "baju- baju adik, papa - papa tidur"
  9. MEMBACA bersama
  10. MAIN bersama
  11. Terima kelemahan anak dan hargai kelebihannya



Membaca bersuara sering juga memakai nama-nama yang berbeza seperti
membaca mekanis, membaca oral, membaca ulat dan membaca nyaring. Walau
apapun nama yang digunakan, membaca mekanis ini merupakan satu aktiviti
membaca yang disuarakan dengan jelas untuk menangkap dan memahamkan
informasi, fikiran dan perasaan seseorang pengarang. Bacaan mekanis adalah
bacaan bersuara yang menyuarakan tulisan dengan sebutan yang jelas dan
terang, dengan intonasi dan irama mengikut gaya membaca yang betul dengan
menggerakkan alat-alat pertuturan. Orang yang membaca harus mempunyai
kemampuan untuk memaknakan apa sahaja yang tersirat dalam bahan-bahan
yang dibaca. Lazimnya, ia harus memiliki kecepatan mata yang tinggi serta
pandangan mata yang jauh. Ia juga harus boleh mengelompokkan kata-kata
dengan baik dan tepat agar jelas maknanya bagi para pendengar.

Bacaan mekanis mempunyai beberapa tujuan;
(a) Membolehkan murid-murid membaca dengan cekap dan pantas
dengan sebutan dan intonasi yang betul dan jelas.
(b) Membolehkan murid-murid membaca dengan irama membaca yang
(c) Mengembangkan atau mempelajari unsur bahasa seperti tatabahasa,
kosa kata dan juga apabila menggunakan kamus.
(d) Membolehkan murid-murid tahu menggunakan tanda-tanda baca serta
tahu pula berhenti pada tempat-tempat berhenti yang betul.
(e) Dapat menggunakan kemahiran bahasa dalam mata-mata pelajaran
yang lain.
(f) Untuk membolehkan murid-murid mencapai kemahiran dan kecekapan
membaca bersuara.
(g) Dapat mengenal pasti laras bahasa yang pelbagai.
(h) Menikmati unsur estetik dalam bahan bacaan.
(i) Dapat mengulas isi yang terdapat dalam bahan bacaan.

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi masalah komunikasi

1. Kecacatan mental
2. kurang pendengaran
3. masalah untuk bersosial dan berinteraksi
4. Masalah penumpuan dan tingkahlaku
5. masalah emosi
6. kurang stimulasi
7. masalah berkaitan dengan berbahasa
Antara contoh-contoh kecelaruan kanak-kanak yang mempengaruhi komunikasi
1. Terencat akal
2. Sindrom berkaitan dengan masalah komunikasi (Down's syndrome, William's, Treacher Collin's, Edward's, cri-du-chat etc)
3. Autisma
4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (atau lebih dikenali sebagai hyperactive)
5. Neurological disorders (seperti cerebral palsy, Bell palsy)
6. oral facial musculatures disorders (cth: cleft lip & palate dan syndromic)
7. kecacatan pendengaran
8. Kelewatan perkembangan
9. masalah kelancaran (gagap)
10. Dyslexia
Selain daripada yang tersebut di atas, terdapat juga kanak2 yang tidak mengalami sebarang kecacatan & kecelaruan tetapi menghadapi masalah untuk berkomunikasi..
Antara penyebabnya adalah:
  1. Kurang stimulasi dari persekitaran - kanak2 yang tidak mempunyai kawan sepermainan, manakala orang dewasa membuat kerja masing2 menyebabkan kanak2 tersebut kurang terdedah dengan stimulasi bahasa.
  2. masalah emosi -kanak2 yang menghadapi penceraian ibu-bapa, mangsa penderaan
  3. Selective mutism - kanak2 ini hanya memilih tempat,masa dan orang tertentu sahaja untuk berkomunikasi..